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Osteoarthritis

发布时间 2018-03-05
点击次数 31
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         Osteoarthritis


         Introduction


         Osteoarthritis (OA), known as degenerative joint disease, involves both articular cartilage and subchondral bone. The progression of the diseased joint includes articular cartilage fibrillation, fissure and partial erosion, full thickness loss of articular cartilage and ends with bone exposed, and sclerosis of subchondral bone. Symptoms include joint pain, swelling and reduced motion in angle and extent. It can occur in any joint, but usually it affects hands, knees, hips or spine. A variety of causes – hereditary, developmental, metabolic, and mechanical – may initiate processes leading to loss of cartilage. OA is the most common form of arthritis, and the leading cause of chronic disability. It affects about 40 million people in the United States.


         Current Treatment

         Cartilage has limited ability to repair itself because it doesn’t have a blood supply. Medications can help controlOsteoarthritis the pain of OA but nothing can stop the disease process, nor is there an effective way to repair damage that has occurred. In the past decades different surgeries and therapeutic regimens such as autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) have been used in clinic. The reparative tissue produced after most cartilage repair techniques can appear normal grossly and even under light microscopy, but cannot with stand the demands required of an articular surface and quickly degenerate (Dr. Buckwalter). If pain becomes debilitating, joint replacement surgery may be used to improve the quality of life. Therefore, osteoarthritis treatment/cartilage repairing is still a big challenge.


          Osteoarthritis Animal Model Available at PharmaLegacy




AnimalAge/GenderMethod
Lewis rats3 months, MaleMeniscectomy(MMT)/ Unilateral transection of anterior cruciate ligament (ACLT)
Wistar rats3 months, Male/Femalemonosodium iodoacetate-induced(MIA)
New Zealand white rabbitOne year, Male/femaleACLT

   EPIC-uCT


Osteoarthritis

                       Osteoarthritis               Osteoarthritis

                  Sham                                                  Post-MMT 3 weeks                               Post-MMT 6 weeks


Osteoarthritis 

               Mean Histopathology Score of Rat OA Models

              Total cartilage score was based on the sum of                                                                 following parameters assessed: nature of                                                                       predominant tissue, articular cartilage surface                                                                 regularity and integrity, chondrocyte clustering, and                                                       articular cartilage degen- erative changes at the                                                             medial tibial condyle plateau (mean +/- SD). 



Histopathology Evaluation of Lewis Rats after MTT / ACLT


Osteoarthritis             Osteoarthritis          Osteoarthritis

                        Norm                                      OA (near complete removal of the articular cartilage)  OA (severe surface damages of the articular cartilage)  

                               Sham                                                                                          MTT                                                                                      ACLT

                                                       

      The contralateral (left) femoral condyles have no remarkable gross changes. The sham surgery introduced mild articular surface changes with spotty discoloration by Indian ink staining. The articular surfaces at the peripheral of the media condyle and the patella groove showed obvious discoloration indicated by the staining of Indian ink. The histopathology evaluation showed clear difference by clustering chondrocytes in the one from ACLT rabbit (H & E, 20X)




 



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