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Our Service

Orthopedics corrects injuries or disorders of the skeletal system and associated muscles, joints and ligaments. Modern technologies in tissue engineering have revolutionized tissue and organ repairs for recovery of function. Combinations of stem cells, small molecules and biologics in biocompatible scaffolds are used to restore structural and functional deficits in bone, cartilage, facet joints, intervertebral disc, ligament/tendon, and teeth. Efficacy and safety data in animal models is required to predict the biological effects of the products in humans.

PharmaLegacy Models and Research Tools

At PharmaLegacy, the scientists are experienced in animal models, biomaterials, biologics, surgical procedures, and tissue engineering. Our familiarity with IDE and 501k and SOP driven GLP quality assurance operations can aid your regulatory submission.

In Vivo Models
Bone Repair

• Bone void filler testing in rat, rabbit, mini-pig, dog and primate.

• Mini-pump delivery of test articles.

• Calvaria critical size defect in rat and rabbit.

• Osteoinduction in rats; muscle/subcutaneous.

• Periodontal bone repair in dog and primate.

• Segmental defect in long bone of rat, rabbit, dog and primate.

• Spine fusion in rat, rabbit and primate.

Cartilage Tissue Repair

•   Full thickness in rat and rabbit.

•   Intervertebral disc repair in rat, rabbit, mini-pig and dog.

•   Intervertebral disc replacement in sheep/goat.

•   Intra-articular particulate injection in rat, rabbit and sheep/goat.

•   Meniscectomy and MCL transection in rat, rabbit and dog.

•   Osteochondral defect in rat, rabbit, dog and sheep/goat.

•   Pond Nuki model in rabbit and dog.

Dental Repair

• Direct and indirect dental pulp exposure in dog and primate.


• Achilles’, ACL, patella and rotator cuff segmental defect repair in dog and sheep/goat.

• Densitometry of pDEXA, micro-CT and pQCT on bone mineral.

• Static and dynamic histomorphometry of bone cells and tissue, and quality of bone matrix..


• Pyogen-induced and wear debris induced in rat, rabbit and dog.

Ex Vivo Models

•   Biomechanics of bone/implant integration.

•   Densitometry of pDEXA, micro-CT and pQCT on bone mineral.

•   EXAKT cutting and grinding of bone/implant.

•   Histopathology and histomorphometry of bone and/or cartilage repair and tissue reaction.

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