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Osteoarthritis (OA), also known as degenerative joint disease, involves both articular cartilage and subchondral bone. The progression of the diseased joint includes articular cartilage fibrillation, fissure and partial erosion, complete loss of articular cartilage and ends with exposed bone and sclerosis of subchondral bone. Symptoms include joint pain, swelling and reduced angle and extent of motion. It can occur in any joint, but usually it affects hands, knees, hips or spine. A variety of causes – hereditary, developmental, metabolic, and mechanical – may initiate the processes leading to loss of cartilage. OA is the most common form of arthritis and the leading cause of chronic disability. It affects about 40 million people in the United States.

Current Treatment


Cartilage has limited ability to repair itself due to lack of blood supply. Medications can help control the pain of OA but there are no current treatments which can halt the progression of the disease, nor is there an effective way to repair damage that has occurred. In the past decades, different surgeries and therapeutic regimens such as autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) have been used in clinic. The tissue resulting from most cartilage repair techniques can appear normal grossly and even under light microscopy, however cannot withstand the demands required of an articular surface and quickly degenerates (Dr. Buckwalter). If pain becomes debilitating, joint replacement surgery may be used to improve the quality of life. The development of therapies to halt or reverse the progression of osteoarthritis or to more effectively repair cartilage is still a major challenge, and is necessary to improve the outcomes of patients with OA.

Osteoarthritis Animal Model Available at PharmaLegacy




Mean Histopathology Score of Rat OA Models

Total cartilage score was based on the sum of following parameters assessed: nature of predominant tissue, articular cartilage surface regularity and integrity, chondrocyte clustering, and articular cartilage degen- erative changes at the medial tibial condyle plateau (mean +/- SD).


Histopathology Evaluation of Lewis Rats after MTT / ACLT


The contralateral (left) femoral condyles have no remarkable gross changes. The sham surgery introduced mild articular surface changes with spotty discoloration by Indian ink staining. The articular surfaces at the peripheral of the media condyle and the patella groove showed obvious discoloration indicated by the staining of Indian ink. The histopathology evaluation showed clear difference by clustering chondrocytes in the one from ACLT rabbit (H & E, 20X)

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