Blogs

NHP Models vs. Murine Models

December 15, 2023 /

In pharmacological investigation, model selection serves as a critical determinant, which can steer the course of scientific inquiry. This blog post serves as a comparative examination between Non-Human Primate (NHP) and Murine models.   Table of Contents Non-Human Primate Models Murine Models Comparative Analysis Considerations for Model Selection Recent Advancements and Alternatives Future Prospects Conclusion Additional Resources   I. Non-Human Primate Models Genetic and Physiological Proximity NHP models, such as rhesus macaques and cynomolgus monkeys, share approximately 95-98% of their genetic makeup with humans[1]. This genetic similarity is particularly advantageous in pharmacological research because NHPs metabolize drugs similarly to humans. [...]

Humanized Mouse Models: An Overview

August 29, 2023 /

What are humanized mouse models? Humanized mouse models are created by implanting human genes, cells, tissues, or organs into a mouse (Allen et al., 2019; Chen et al., 2022). They aim to recreate parts or the whole of the human immune system in a murine host, thereby providing an in vivo preclinical model to investigate human immune conditions and diseases (e.g. HIV) or to test the safety of drugs that target human-specific immunoreceptors. In addition, humanized models are widely used to study the mechanisms of and potential treatments for different types of cancer, including novel immune-modulating anticancer drugs (Chuprin et [...]

DSS Colitis and TNBS Colitis Models: An Overview

August 14, 2023 /

Inflammatory Bowel disease (IBD) is a multifaceted and polygenic disorder that is characterized by persistent inflammation in the GI tract. It encompasses two primary phenotypes (Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn’s disease). Attaining a comprehensive insight into the intricate mechanisms and the pathogenesis of IBD is of paramount importance for the development of efficacious therapeutic interventions. In this context, animal models have emerged as indispensable tools, playing a major role in both the advancement of and the understanding of IBD. The establishment of both robust and reliable animal models has made significant contributions to giving us a better insight into the complexities [...]

Syngeneic vs. Xenograft Cancer Models: Overview, Key Differences, and When To Use Each

August 07, 2023 /

Scientists have been investigating cancer for well over 100 years, with the first animal model of cancer being a squamous cell carcinoma induced on the ears of rabbits using coal tar.1,2 Since that time, many thousands of animal models of cancer have been developed, but they largely fall into one of two baskets: syngeneic models and xenograft models. Both types of models have been used by researchers for over 50 years.3,4 Understanding the differences between these models, the variations within each type of model, and how to select the most appropriate model is key to designing a successful study - [...]

The OVA-induced Asthma Model in Mice and Rats: An Overview

July 06, 2023 /

Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease that is estimated to affect 262 million people worldwide and kill approximately 455,000 annually. It is characterized by airway inflammation, bronchoconstriction and airway hyperresponsiveness. These features can significantly impact the quality of life of affected individuals, and although symptom management is feasible, there is no known cure for this condition. The complexity of asthma and the factors contributing to its onset make its treatment and management challenging even for the most experienced healthcare professionals and pharmacologists. One commonly used animal model of asthma is the ovalbumin-induced asthma model. This model involves sensitizing animals to [...]

How Proper DMPK Studies Can Lower Clinical Attrition Rates

October 27, 2022 /

Drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics (DMPK) are essential to understanding important characteristics of drug candidates, including absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion, toxicity (ADMET), and pharmacokinetic (PK) properties. DMPK studies are conducted at the preclinical and clinical stages as well as post-approval. Preclinical DMPK studies involve both in vitro studies to evaluate drug candidate characteristics such as protein binding affinities and interactions with transporters and enzymes as well as in vivo analyses to assess toxicity and pharmacokinetics such as half-life, bioavailability, excretion, absorption, and distribution in preclinical animal models. Drug characteristics are further evaluated during clinical trials, including assessment of safety, dosage, side [...]